Archive for October, 2010


five

most important innovation:

camera

short history about camera

The forerunner to the camera was the camera obscura. It was a dark chamber (in Latin, a camera obscura, demonstrating the etymology)”consist[ing] of a darkened chamber or box, into which light is admitted through a pinhole (later a convex lens), forming an image of external objects on a surface of paper or glass, etc., placed at the focus of the lens”. In the 6th century, Greek mathematician and architect Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments. The camera obscura was described by the Arabic scientist Ibn al-Haytham(Alhazen) in his Book of Optics (1015–1021). Scientist-monk Roger Bacon also studied the matter. The actual name of camera obscura was applied by mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler in his Ad Vitellionem paralipomena of 1604. He later added a lens and made the apparatus transportable, in the form of a tent. English scientist Robert Boyle and his assistant Robert Hooke developed a portable camera obscura in the 1660s.

 

simpelnya, kamera apalagi jaman sekarang memiliki fungsi yang sangat banyak. semua bertujuan untuk mengabadikan momen yang terjadi. dahulu hasil dari kamera adalah gambar berupa 2dimensi. tapi belakangan, kamera sering digunakan untuk membuat video juga.

sistem kamera sebenarnya cukup sederhana yaitu “membakar” film dengan cahaya

variasi kamera pun cukup banyak dari jaman dahulu yaitu:

Plate camera

Large format camera

Medium format camera

Folding camera

Rangefinder camera

Single-lens reflex

Twin-lens reflex

dll

 

dibawah ada foto yang sangat memorable dan beberapa jenis foto beserta sejarahnya:

 

foto yang  memperlihatkan seorang wanita yang bertahan dari serbuan ratusan tentara

foto yang memenangkan pulitzer awards di awal tahun 2000 yang menunjukkan seorang anak kecil yang kurang gizi dan sebelahnya ada burung gagak. fotografer yang memotretnya mendapat kecaman dari mana-mana dan menganggap bahwa sang fotografer lebih mementingkan hasil karya daripada rasa kemanusiaan. akhirnya, pulitzer awards dilepas dan beberapa tahun kemudian sang fotografer bunuh diri.

 

dibawah akan ditunjukkan hasil karya saya mengenai fotografi yang dituangkan dalam video:

What is Open Innovation?

Recently, growing attention has been devoted to the concept of “Open Innovation”, both in academia as well as in practice. Chesbrough, who coined the term “Open Innovation” describes in his book “Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology” (2003) how companies have shifted from so-called closed innovation processes towards a more open way of innovating.

Traditionally, new business development processes and the marketing of new products took place within the firm boundaries

Figure 1 Closed innovation


However, several factors have led to the erosion of closed innovation (Chesbrough, 2003). First of all, the mobility and availability of highly educated people has increased over the years. As a result, large amounts of knowledge exist outside the research laboratories of large companies. In addition to that, when employees change jobs, they take their knowledge with them, resulting in knowledge flows between firms. Second, the availability of venture capital has increased significantly recently, which makes it possible for good and promising ideas and technologies to be further developed outside the firm, for instance in the form entrepreneurial firms. Besides, the possibilities to further develop ideas and technologies outside the firm, for instance in the form of spin-offs or through licensing agreements, are growing. Finally, other companies in the supply chain, for instance suppliers, play an increasingly important role in the innovation process.

As a result, companies have started to look for other ways to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their innovation processes. For instance through active search for new technologies and ideas outside of the firm, but also through cooperation with suppliers and competitors, in order to create customer value. Another important aspect is the further development or out-licensing of ideas and technologies that do not fit the strategy of the company. Consider, for example, ASML, which is a Philips spin-off.

Open Innovation can thus be described as: combining internal and external ideas as well as internal and external paths to market to advance the development of new technologies.

Figure 2 Open innovation


What does this mean?

In the first place, the shift described above means that companies have to become aware of the increasingly importance of open innovation. Not all good ideas are developed within the own company, and not all ideas should necessarily be further developed within the own firm’s boundaries. The table below further illustrates this:

Closed innovation principles Open innovation principles
The smart people in the field work for us. Not all the smart people in the field work for us. We need to work with smart people inside and outside the company.
To profit from R&D, we must discover it, develop it, and ship it ourselves. External R&D can create significant value: internal R&D is needed to claim some portion of that value.
If we discover it ourselves, we will get it to the market first. We don’t have to originate the research to profit from it.
The company that gets an innovation to the market first will win. Building a better business model is better than getting to the market first.
If we create the most and the best ideas in the industry, we will win. If we make the best use of internal and external ideas, we will win.
We should control our IP, so that our competitors don’t profit from our ideas. We should profit from others’ use of our IP, and we should buy others’ IP whenever it advances our business model.

This means that within the company a shift should take place in the way people look at the company and its environment. Involving other parties when developing new products and technologies can be of great added value. Think for instance about cooperation with other firms in your sector, suppliers, universities, and of course end-users.

The business model plays a crucial role in this is. After all, how and when external knowledge is required and used is to a large extent determined by the companies’ business model which describes how value can be created from innovations and which elements have to be sourced internally or externally

 

 

What is Open Business?

Open Business represents a concept of doing business in a transparent way by intimately integrating an ecosystem of participants, collaborating in public space.

Open Business structures make contributors and non-contributors visible such that the business benefits are distributed accordingly.

They activate personal engagement and productivity by benefitting the contributors and producers that they can live from it and helping the clients to reduce their costs

Central to the concept are:

  • Open learning/sharing — a fundamental tenet is open collaboration at all levels in all locations
  • Open participation — open invitation to join the organization (similar to SourceForge, Blender community, where individual/team input within the community framework [for special services, consulting, training, adaptions, courses, camps, symposiums, books] can help to build individual income)
  • Individual rights — each person is supported and encouraged to identify and optimise their personal development, i.e. technical, personal, spiritual, etc.
  • Community focus — productivity activities are seen as part of a range of normal human activities e.g. family life, community life, religious commitments, etc.
  • Institution free — the organization is not based on any existing institution – state, religious or otherwise. Members can hold whatever views or affiliations they like.
  • Open knowledge — the free exchange of knowledge by making use -as much as possible- of open standards, open source and open content principles.
  • Open member details — including open access to the contact details of all other members in a convenient form (i.e. once the range and depth of those details have been approved for release by that particular member)
  • Open financials — all accounting information including the compensation of others